We HEAR, slowly building and overlayed in some places and perhaps with GRAPHICS of the words as they are spoken:

YDDC CLASS

Alcohol is crazy

Alcohol is amazing

TEEN MEETING

Alcohol is uncontrollable

Enticing

Everywhere

Available

Throughout the open sequence, we occasionally SEE the PARTNER CREDITS INCLUDING:

SafeTeen New Mexico

New Mexico Children Youth and Families Department

State Farm Insurance Company

Independent Insurance Agents of New Mexico

In Association with:

BOB THOMA , PHD

We wanted to know the extent to which teenagers were resilient in the face of alcohol, in the face of alcohol assault. We know what happens when adults drink too much. We know that their prefrontal cortex is affected, we know that their hippocampus is affected, we know that their cerebellum is affected and if you move that to behavior we know that their organization and decision-making is affected. We know that their memory is affected ///// We know that their coordination, their motor coordination and their ability to move well is effected, after years and years and years of heavy alcohol use. But nobody really knew the extent to which adolescents who are drinking at a younger and younger age now might be resilient or might be at risk for brain damage due to alcohol

SHELLEY MANN-LEV, Santa Fe Alliance

Our young people start to drink at young ages. They don’t start in high school, they don’t start in college, they start in middle school and even younger.

SARA FELDSTEIN EWING, PhD

The mean age is about 13, which means that kids are starting even as low as 11 or 12 ////But kids who start earlier are more likely to have a riskier pattern of drinking.

Throughout the open sequence, we occasionally SEE the PARTNER CREDITS INCLUDING:

Cooperative Educational Services

New Mexico Coalition of School Administrators

New Mexico School Boards Association

And

ROBERT ZAYES , NMAA

New Mexico leads the nation right now in kids that drink prior to the age of 13.

PETER DeBenedittis, PhD

By the time a student turns 18 in America, they’re going to be exposed to half a million alcohol ads. So we have half a million mental repetitions in our brain on how to get drunk.

ALFRED WALKER, City of Santa Fe

We know that teenagers drink very often at their own homes or at the homes of friends///

ROBERT ARCHULETA, NM DOT

they tend to binge drink, especially on weekends, you know, after that big game, you know, there’s a big celebration and they drink 4 to 5 drinks in a setting or more.

YDDC CLASS

Alcohol is fun

Dangerous

Violence

Expensive

Alcohol is trouble

Throughout the open sequence, we occasionally SEE the PARTNER CREDITS INCLUDING:

SARA FELDSTEIN EWING, PhD

The mean age is about 13, which means that kids are starting even as low as 11 or 12 ////But kids who start earlier are more likely to have a riskier pattern of drinking.

Throughout the open sequence, we occasionally SEE the PARTNER CREDITS INCLUDING:

Cooperative Educational Services

New Mexico Coalition of School Administrators

New Mexico School Boards Association

And

ROBERT ZAYES , NMAA

New Mexico leads the nation right now in kids that drink prior to the age of 13.

PETER DeBenedittis, PhD

By the time a student turns 18 in America, they’re going to be exposed to half a million alcohol ads. So we have half a million mental repetitions in our brain on how to get drunk.

ALFRED WALKER, City of Santa Fe

We know that teenagers drink very often at their own homes or at the homes of friends///

ROBERT ARCHULETA, NM DOT

they tend to binge drink, especially on weekends, you know, after that big game, you know, there’s a big celebration and they drink 4 to 5 drinks in a setting or more.

YDDC CLASS

Alcohol is fun

Dangerous

Violence

Expensive

Alcohol is trouble

Throughout the open sequence, we occasionally SEE the PARTNER CREDITS INCLUDING:

TEEN MEETING

Poison

An Industry

Your deceiving friend

AS THE TITLE CARD COMES UP we HEAR:

ROBERT ZAYES

the state of New Mexico spends an average of 243 million dollars a year on alcohol related accidents, crashes, and problems associated with teenage drinking.

TITLE CARD: YOUTH, BRAINS AND ALCOHOL

DISSOLVE TO TRANSITION:  roadway time lapse

Bob Thoma

We can sort of think of… of neurons… neurons, dendrites and synapses as if they were roads. Roads are pathways that carry cars form place to place. //// whereas in your brain your… your dendrites, your synapses transfer information from place to place. So we have constant movement of information. There are very few places in your brain that ever turned off, that are ever not working, your brain is constantly in motion, /////

QUICK TRANSITION: roadway time lapse

SARA FELDSTEIN EWING, PhD

Alcohol relates to all sorts of other behaviors. It sort of opens the door for smoking cigarettes and for engaging in marijuana use and what I get the most concerned about associating with risky peers, so a kid who starts drinking and really enjoying drinking and wanting that to be their main social outlet starts to hang out with other kids who are drinking, and we also know that kids don’t tend to do risky things on their own,

DEVON LOOMIS

My friends that would hang out with me, I’d end up getting them in trouble, too.  I’ve woken up in jail with friends from stuff I did and they were just with me, guilt by association, accomplice to a crime that they didn’t commit, they just happened to be with me because I was drunk.

SARA FELDSTEIN EWING, PhD

Kids tend to do things in groups, right, so once you get a bunch of kids together and there’s drinking involved, they’re much more likely to make….bad decisions, things that they probably wouldn’t do if they were on their own.

SHELLY Mann

It is not just about DWI.  DWI is only one of the risks of alcohol for young people and the other kinds of risks, of course the ones that result in injury and death which everyone should be concerned about, alcohol poisoning, homicide, suicide, three leading causes of preventable death are heavily related to alcohol.  … but we also have all those other concerns, sexual assault.

DEVON

Alcohol…made it easier for me to contemplate suicide.  There are plenty of nights I can distinctly remember being on my bed with a bag over my head and a rope around my neck waiting to take my last breath, wondering what that last breath would feel like to feel it.  Do I really want to leave this earth or not.

TRANSITION;  roadway time lapse

Bob Thoma

One of the things that we think is occurring during development of prefrontal cortex during adolescence is that synapses that are used get stronger and synapses cells that aren’t used die away. So there’s this molding of… just like a road system, there’s this molding of the brain to the environment. Where it’s needed most it grows and develops and where it’s not used, it tends to get smaller. So it’s very adaptive.

DEVON

Any time I got in a hard spot and I would start drinking, the problem was solved, but it wasn’t really solved…you know.

IMAGE of brain scan

Bob Thoma

They change when we learn, they change when we injure ourselves, they change as we grow and develop. And they may change when we use alcohol.

 

DEVON LOOMIS

When you’re drunk, all reasoning goes out the window and I can tell you there’s plenty of nights that I woke up, you know, waiting for the cops to come to my house because of the things I did when I was drunk.

TRANSITION ROADWAY TIME LAPSE

SARA

so we know that drinking is a really normative part of adolescence, and in fact there are some studies that suggest the same is true obviously with marijuana use and tobacco use and sexual risk taking. That’s… that’s part of what adolescents are supposed to do is try on adult rules and see how… see how they do with them. The risk is binge drinking.  When adolescents drink, for girls at least three drinks per episode and for boys anywhere between four and five drinks per episode. That is much more likely to cause harm.

TRANSITION…Nat sound FULL from TEEN MEETING

Teacher:  The first question is, is simply what role does alcohol play in young people’s lives today? 

M: Alcohol and all other substances play a big role. A lot of people are addicted to it, a lot of people use it on a regular basis. And I have to say it’s kind of an epidemic.

F: I think that a lot of people use it as a source of entertainment ////

F: And I think it’s the only way people think that they can have fun anymore because teenagers just, whenever they think of having fun they incorporate alcohol or drugs or anything else and it’s kind of sad.

M: Or sometimes they’re not even having fun. Just to get rid of problems they have in life or just stress.

M: It’s a way to like, people want to impress each other, like oh, my god, I got so smashed last weekend.

M: Alcohol’s just a problem that affects everybody, not just small towns.

SHELLY

Young people who start drinking before the age of 15 are 4 to 5 times more likely to have serious problems with alcohol as an adult.

The longer you delay, the longer you wait to start drinking alcohol, as a young person, the less likely you are to have problems as an adult…. serious problems with alcohol. Of course that doesn’t count all the problems you’re having as a teen.

TEEN MEETING

M: Like they’ll tell me a statistic and I’ll be like oh, okay, but it won’t happen to me, oh, it’s just another number. It won’t affect me.

F: I don’t think teens really think about the health risks at all and I don’t think a good amount of them even know what alcohol does to your brain and your body and your development.

M: Not only I think that the consequences of like drinking and driving and like… alcohol poisoning but I think like the consequences of maybe drinking and then having sex, having unprotected sex and getting pregnant and maybe getting drunk and getting in a fight with your best friend.

M: Some teens are willing to risk the rest of their lives for one night of fun.

SHELLY

Underage drinking impacts learning and memory, impacts the development of many areas of the brain and particularly that frontal lobe that’s so crucial to maturation development.

TRANSITION  ROAD TIME LAPSE

SEQUENCE OF SETTING KID UP IN MEG AT MRN.

BOB THOMA

The technology that I depended on the most was magneto encephalography. The MEG is sensitive to electrical impulses in the brain so it can actually measure what’s happening very quickly, what’s happening very fast, so we can… We can measure how your brain processes incoming stimuli before you are aware what’s coming in.

NAT SOUND OF Bob and assistant talking as we SEE the eyeball on computer:

BOB THOMA

This device and this software is made to track exactly what his eye is doing. It helps to understand what’s happening downstream in cognitive processing. You… you don’t… we, as people, we don’t really feel… or understand what’s happening out in the world until several hundred milliseconds after it occurs. We’re not aware of it until hundreds of milliseconds after it occurs and all this processing occurs prior to that,   We were most interested in the long term affects of alcohol. How are these kids affecting themselves in the long term for the rest of their lives? The kids in our sample, in our current drinking group, were drinking roughly a dozen drinks per drinking day.  Binge style drinking. On average two to three times a week.

What we had them do was a task called the auditory oddball task. 50 to 100 milliseconds after you hear a tone you can start to see your brain respond. 300 milliseconds after that, if there’s an odd tone in the sequence, so you hear beep, beep, beep, beep and your brain kind of relaxes and then you hear beep, all of a sudden you can see brain regions turning on. You can see people attuning their brains saying, kind of saying, what’s out there? What’s out there? What was that? Do we need to pay attention to that? Normal controls, that’s what you see. You see prefrontal cortex, you see the parietal lobes up here, you see regions just turning on and off all over the place, ///lit up like the fourth of July here. In the alcohol use disorders group it looks as if somebody turned down the volume.

SHOWING THE BRAIN THAT IS LIGHTED UP AND THE BRAIN THAT IS NOT

BOB THOMA

We used the same procedures but you can see that there’s nothing in the prefrontal cortex.  It’s quiet. It’s quiet. On both the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere.

And again, remember how early this is in processing, in cognitive processing. If they’re having abnormalities at 300 milliseconds into cognitive processing what’s going to happen downstream? What’s… what’s going… this isn’t decision-making, these are automatic processes, this is the way your brain is attuning itself to the outside environment If that’s going wrong, how is perception going to be changed? How is their understanding of what’s going on going to be changed? How is their ability to make good decisions in the face of something like alcohol going to be changed if the automatic processes are different?

BOB THOMA

And what we found were that executive functions, or decision-making, was impaired in these kids relative to controls. We also found that their ability to attend, just to pay attention, and… and concentrate well, was also impaired, compared to our non-drinking control subjects. And what’s most worrisome about that for me is those are two of the most important things that an adolescent needs to have to be successful in school, to be successful in life, to do anything well they have to make good decisions and they have to be able to attend, and the other thing that we found is that memory is affected, particularly verbal memory.

DEVON

My first drink was probably when I was 13 or 14. I remember the first time I got drunk.  Yea, 40 ounces, that’s what we drank back in the day. I just remember I was with some friends and I think it was just one 40 ounces, just like 3.3 beers, but blacked out.  Didn’t remember anything.

TRANSITION ROADWAY TIME LAPSE

To the BEER COMMERCIAL images from One Friday Night show

TEEN MEETING

F: I think that a lot of the commercials, they show like all these fun parties and then they don’t show like the alcohol until the end. So it’s like oh, you could be having so much fun but it’s going to make it so much more fun if there’s alcohol.

M: They also don’t show the kid hugging the toilet after they drink all that.

M: Exactly.

M: And then they make it humorous for you to like laugh at but then later on you’re like, oh, remember that one commercial I saw? So they use humor to try and like suck you in.

F: I think they also use like association, how they always show like a guy getting a girl or like vice versa. It’s always like oh, like if you drink this then you’re probably going to get this really nice lady.

M: And if you’re drinking that much you’re not even going to remember the nice lady.

(laughing)

NAT SOUND TRANSITION with Peter D at his computer

PETER DEBENEDITTIS, PhD

By the time a student turns 18 in America, they’re going to be exposed to half a million alcohol ads. Now alcohol companies don’t want you to know that 90% of the drinking experience you have is because they’ve trained your brain with all these fancy ads that they’ve pounded in half a million times, they’ve jack hammered this in. And it’s called pairing. Neurons that fire together, wire together. So if they keep putting alcohol and this happy party image together the students believe I need alcohol to have a happy party. You watch alcohol ads and they’re all basically stupid. They’re not about anything but you laugh, right? Now because you’re laughing, what’s going on in your brain is your pairing beer and funny and you do that half a million times and you go, oh, beer’s a good time. It’s funny, let’s go.… so the message is, is that for anybody who drinks, the drink is not giving you what you think. This is what’s giving you the experience you’re trying to get. And if you know that you’re no longer dependent on the alcohol anymore.

So ideally you would have a zero tolerance approach and you just wouldn’t have under aged drinking because we know there’s just huge amount of problems that happen in kids’ brains over time. But if you can’t get them there, then the next step is to understand that okay, well, maybe I don’t have to get as many harmful effects. Maybe I don’t have to be drunk all the time and have my brain turn into Swiss cheese.

PETER D

So here’s the deal: alcohol does give you a buzz but at extremely low doses, all right? When you hit .05 BAC you’re peaked at your buzz. You’re as buzzed as you’re going to get. .05 BAC is one drink for a 150 pound person. All right? So it’s one beer, one shot, and one little glass of wine and you’re peaked. You have that second drink you’ve lost your buzz. It just goes away. You’re wasting good alcohol. You have a third drink because your second drink will put you at .1 BAC if you’re at 150 pounds, all right, and if you have that third drink you feel worse than when you started. So yes, alcohol does give you a buzz, which is why it’s such a powerful training tool while your brain thinks, oh, my God, because you have that first drink and you get the buzz and then you assume that everything that happens was because of what you just did. That’s where your brain makes the mistake. They just assume it’s linear, more, more, more, better, better, better. All right, but what we know is that it’s the thinking and not the drinking that causes you to have all the whole host of social effects, we call them social, emotional expectancies. Oh, I’m more outgoing, I’m happier. There’s no happy chemical in alcohol.

There’s a buzz but there’s no happy chemical. You know, ‘cause many people get sad or depressed when they drink, okay, or they say, oh, I get friendly when I drink. There’s no friendly chemical. And they say, oh, I get horny when I drink. There’s no horny chemical in the bottle. This is your head doing all this stuff. There is a buzz, but that doesn’t translate into any of this stuff.

PETER D

Once you understand that the social, emotional effects of alcohol, the expectancies, are in your brain and not in the bottle, then why put up with the crappy effects? And so drinking just naturally drops down. You don’t even have to tell them, oh, don’t drink less, they figure it out.

ROAD TRANSTION (OR OTHER TRANSITION)

ROBERT ZAYES, NMAA

In the past we’ve talked to kids about not drinking because it’s illegal, not drinking because it’s bad for them, but we’ve never really given them the true data and the research and the statistics about why it’s bad for them.  Athletes don’t realize, students don’t realize, I don’t know if general public realizes about how much alcohol actually negatively impacts your performance as an athlete.

And what research is showing us is that if an athlete parties on a Friday night they’re really not going to be back to their true athletic performance until 2 weeks, so they really have the opportunity to lose up to 2 weeks of athletic training.

IMAGES OF LIFE OF AN ATHLETE WEBSITE

ROBERT ARCHULETA, NM DOT

We’ve partnered with the NM Activities Association to bring the life of an athlete program to all sanctioned New Mexico High Schools throughout the state.

ROBERT ZAYES

It’s an on line curriculum that really focuses upon the dangers and the negative effects of alcohol upon an athlete’s performance.  Testosterone is the main training hormone for any athlete. And what alcohol does is it actually suppresses the amount of testosterone in an athlete’s body.  Males have 10 to 1 testosterone in their body than that of females. So what research is showing us is that if a male drinks to intoxication they can actually suppress their hormones enough in order to have the same amount of testosterone in their body as that of the young lady sitting next to them the next morning in English class.  And furthermore females don’t realize that if they drink to intoxication they suppress their testosterone even more because they have less to start with.  When you look at testosterone it, that’s the training hormone that allows an athlete to, to train faster, to get bigger, to get stronger. And when you drink that has a negative impact upon those three areas.

ROBERT ARCHULETA

One in four kids in New Mexico are drinking alcohol, binge drinking and that’s five drinks in one setting, which is pretty alarming.

TEEN MEETING

Teacher: You’re going to have to decide, each one of you.   So what we want to do today is to talk about some ways that you can say no.  The best way to learn something is to practice it, over and over.   We’re going to do some refusal skills now.

GRAPHIC:   YOUTH RESPONSE

TEEN MEETING 

Teacher : So we’re going to talk about refusal skills right now so if you want to just kind of think back to a time when you were at a party or something was offered to you, what is a way that you were able to say no? What is a way that you were able to get out of a situation that you felt was something that maybe you were uncomfortable with? 

M: Definitely making a joke out of is a good one and then just saying no always works.

F: I think if you say that you have a sport commitment or an extracurricular activity that you’re involved in, you can say that’s like more important. So you can be like I know if I drink this like I’m going to do as well in my soccer game tomorrow.

M: I tell my friend I’m grounded all the time so I don’t have to hang out with her.

SHELLY MANN

And some of the best answers frankly are, is what I tell my daughter, blame me.  I’m the best excuse.  You can say I’ll kill you, I’ll ground you for life, it’s not that I’ll do all those things, but you know, use me, and we encourage parents to tell their kids, any way of saying NO is fine.

TITLE PARENT RESPONSE

SARA FELDSTIEN EWING

There’s been a number of studies trying to figure out what can parents do in order to reduce their kids’ drinking. The number one thing appears to be having dinner with your kid. So family dinner frequency is the best predictor of good outcomes, particularly for girls.

Two, you know, there are some parents who think, gosh, if my kid drinks I just want them to drink at home where they can be safe or I can watch them. The idea behind it is nice but we know that having rules that there will be no drinking in my house, that works really, really well even though some parents are worried about it.

I guess, third, most importantly is learning to converse with your kid, communicate with your kid effectively.  So for example, if a parent says, there’ll be no drinking in my house and Johnny goes off and gets kind of drunk and gets in trouble, comes home, instead of just saying, you’re grounded, that’s it, you’re not going out for a month, instead, take some time after Johnny is recovered from the event to sort of say, gosh, what happened there? I thought we had, you know, we had a plan and you were going to call me. Tell me what happened on your end so that we can make sure it doesn’t happen again in the future.

TITLE COMMUNITIES RESPONSE

SHELLY MAN

Communities can do a lot to address the issue of that alcohol landscape. Communities can, in particular areas where there are lots of alcohol outlets, say, we don’t want more. Communities can decide, as some communities have, we don’t want alcohol being served at outdoor celebrations and public places, parks, community events, our communities can urge their city councils to adopt policies that say, we aren’t going to have alcohol on city property, that belongs to us, because we can… we can have a great time without it. Communities can pass social host ordinances.

ALFRED WALKER

The social host ordinance in Santa Fe is designed to make parents or other adults responsible for the activities that go on in their homes. Very often parents think they are doing their children or their children’s friends a favor by hosting parties or by allowing parties to occur in their home because they think, well, this way at least they’re not drinking and driving.  What parents tend to not understand is the… the danger to young people of drinking, the effect alcohol has on the adolescent brain, … the risky behaviors that teenagers engage in at these parties.

The way Santa Fe deals with it is we’ve… developed a cost recover system where when… if there are parties and the police are called out, or fire or ambulance, then we bill the responsible people at that address for ///… what it costs to have the police go out there or the fire department or an ambulance.

SHELLY MANN-LEV

Communities could decided we don’t want alcohol billboards, there’s enough exposure to advertising.  So when you look around your environment know that it’s not just you as an adult looking, it’s your teens, it’s your eight year old, it’s your five year old, it’s everyone’s children, it’s their future, and so they can, there’s a lot of ways communities can take a stand and say, we’re going to do some things together to change that landscape, decrease access, to increase enforcement and to say, we’re not going to let it happen here. We’re going to protect our kids.

ROADWAY TRANSITION

ROBERT ZAYES

We need to start talking to kids about how does alcohol negatively impact them, as not only an athlete, but what it could do to their life.

DEVON LOOMIS

I got passed all of it by first being in prison. I was in there long enough to really reflect on my life and figure out what I really wanted and what I didn’t want and realized what was getting me into situations that I didn’t want to be in, and one of those was alcohol, I was giving my freedom up to alcohol because it ended up sticking me in, you know, bad situations.

IMAGES OF DEVON DOING HIS STOCK TRADING

DEVON LOOMIS

Businesses that are successful use a contrarian approach to the market to differentiate themselves from other, you know, competitors and it’s the same in life. You have to be a contrarian. Any time you see the crowd doing something you need to think twice about it, regardless of the sentiment, regardless of how you feel about it, you need to think twice about it. And more often than not you need to act counter to that or be a contrarian.   Which is extremely difficult to be a contrarian but that’s a part of the adventure. That’s the fun of life. If you’re just going with what everyone else is doing it’s really not fun.

QUICK SEQENCE OF WORDS FROM FIRST TWO PAGES:

Overlap audio as it builds to the end:

Alcohol is crazy

Enticing

Everywhere

Alcohol is uncontrollable

Dangerous

Expensive

Poison

Your Deceiving friend

FTB